The Malay Kingdom was a classical Buddhist kingdom located in Southeast Asia. The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671, and the state was ‘absorbed’ by Srivijaya by 692, but had ‘broken away’ by the end of the twelfth century according to Chao Jukua. The exact location of the kingdom is the subject of study among a lot of historians. One theory is that the kingdom was established around present-day Jambi in Sumatra, Indonesia.
That is what people would always know when talking about the Malay Kingdom. The truth is, there are already numerous different Malay Kingdoms. According to a posted video on TikTok by a user that goes by the name Vague that went viral, there are already a lot of known the Malay Kingdom before the 15th century. These are stated kingdoms.
@vaguelifeReply to @historyfan4 ade banyak lagi kerajaan Melayu #fyp #fypシ #malaysia #sejarah
1) 2nd Century – Langkasuka
Langkasuka was an ancient Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula. The name is Sanskrit in origin, it is thought to be a combination of langkha for ‘resplendent land’ –sukkha for ‘bliss’. The kingdom, along with Old Kedah, is probably among the earliest kingdoms founded on the Malay Peninsula. The exact location of the kingdom is of some debate, but archaeological discoveries at Yarang near Pattani, Thailand suggest a probable location. The kingdom is believed to have been founded in the 2nd century.
2) 5th Century – Kedah Tua
Kedah Tua was one of the famous early kingdoms located in the Malay Peninsula. It is also known as Kataha, Kadaram, Sai, Kalah, Kalah Bar and Kalagram. According to the records of I-Tsing from China, the Kedah Tua kingdom is also referred to as Cheh-Cha or Chiecha in Chinese records.
3) 6th Century – Chih Tu
Chi Tu was an ancient kingdom mentioned in the history of China. The Sui Dynasty annals describe an advanced kingdom called Chi Tu in 607 when Chang Chun was sent as an ambassador there. The location of Chi Tu was disputed, proposals for its location include areas in the states of Kelantan or Pahang in Malaysia, or in Songkhla and Pattani Province of southern Thailand.
4) 6th Century – Gangga Nagara
Gangga Nagara is believed to be a lost semi-legendary Malay-Hindu kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals that covered present-day Beruas, Dinding, and Manjung in the state of Perak, Malaysia with Raja Gangga Shah Johan as one of its kings. Researchers believe that the kingdom was centered at Beruas and it collapsed after an attack by King Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel, South India, between 1025 and 1026.
5) 10th Century – Santubong
The Santubong Kingdom did exist. This could be supported by the artifacts that were found in that area. Some of the artifacts found in this area are golden stones which are evidence found by James Brooke that may prove that Indians from India may have lived there, thousands of pieces of Chinese ceramics which are collected by the Sarawak Museum in 1914, and 40,000 tonnes of iron. A closer look at these artifacts brought historians to a conclusion that Santubong may have existed since the 7th century and has remained in power till the 10th or 14th century. As a matter of fact, historians also concluded that Santubong may have been a port city when they discovered iron there. These natural resources that Santubong had managed to catch Majapahit’s attention and this pretty much caused the Santubong kingdom to be conquered by the Majapahit kingdom.
6) 15th Century – Beruas
Research on the Beruas kingdom was first conducted by Colonel James Low in 1840 and a century later by H.G. Quaritch-Wales. According to the Museum and Anti-quities Department, both researchers agreed that the Beruas kingdom existed but could not ascertain the exact site. For years, villagers had unearthed artifacts, including tombstones with inscriptions, that indicated that Beruas could have been the starting point for the spread of Islam in Peninsular Malaysia. Artifacts on display include a 128kg cannon, swords, kris, coins, tin ingots, pottery from the Ming Dynasty and various eras, and large jars. The kingdom was said to be on a hill with its rear side facing a valley.
Sources: TikTok Vague.
Worried Too Much? Here Are 3 Ways To A Happier And Fuller Life!
Life is an ongoing process. We make new friends, make decisions, argue, and make mistakes. As individuals, we all have goals and dreams. We have both good and bad days. Finding balance and attaining great and tiny triumphs are all part of life, as is learning to forgive and grow from huge and small losses.
Life can be a big hurdle at times. Making decisions in life can be tough. We pursue our ambitions and, on occasion, put them on hold for a variety of reasons. We may not even know what we want half of the time. Even if we know what we want, trying to break free from old habits and achieve something new can be perplexing. On other days, we simply feel lost in the midst of juggling relationships, work, finances, and everything else that life throws at us.
But, regardless of your circumstances, you may still live a happier and more fulfilling life. Here are three parts of how to do it: Let Go, Discover and Take Action.
1. Let Go
On your way to a happier life, you must learn to let go of things that no longer serve you. Some things to let go of are:
- Let go of perfection
- Let go of your ego
- Let go of negativity
Life is never perfect. So stop expecting it to be perfect! If you are continuously striving for perfection, you will never be satisfied, because perfection is unachievable. You can perceive something to be perfect, but if you keep looking for it, you’ll only uncover more problems. Ego can be great sometimes but if it’s too much, it will only cause problems. Being humble and practicing gratitude is one way to bring you happiness. And there’s negativity. We just love focusing on the negative side of things and fail to see the bright side. The phrase ‘think positive’ doesn’t means ignore your problems or feelings, it means to get creative. Focusing on solutions rather than negativity will give you ideas on how to change your circumstances and hence, leading to a happier life.
Life is full of surprises and lessons that are always waiting to be found. Seeing the outside world and its wonders is a big discovery for us all but the most essential discoveries, however, are made within you.
You need to look inside yourself and see what you possess. Some things you can discover are:
- Discovering your values
- Discovering your self-expression
- Discovering balance
Who are you? What are your core values? Start by figuring out who you are, what you actually believe in, and what your values are if you want to learn how to live a fuller, happier life. Live your life in this way once you’ve figured out who you are, what you value, and who you want to be.
Expressing who you are, even if others don’t like it, is a part of living genuinely. Find your tribe and live your truth. You are great and essential, and expressing who you truly are will bring you joy.
Life needs balance. You must achieve balance if you want to learn how to live a fuller, happier life. Do more of the activities you enjoy! Spend some time restoring balance in areas where you’ve fallen short.
3. Take Action
You may have let go of certain things and find new ones but you need some action to actually make things work. Taking action in life is only beneficial if it aids you in being loyal to your actual self. To learn how to have a fuller, happier life, here’s a list of actions to practice.
- Leave your comfort zone
- Surround yourself with supportive people
- Do what makes you happy
To live your best life, you must step outside of your comfort zone and attain your objectives. Everything you desire is just beyond your comfort zone. Fear and happiness may be contradicting, yet they are not. It is okay to have fear because fear is a stepping stop to your happiness.
Also, being with the right group of people contributes to your happiness. Your potential to be happy and fulfilled will be limited if you are surrounded by negative people who don’t believe in you and try to keep you down. So choose your circle wisely.
One main key to be happy is to do things that make you happy. People will try to convince you that you’re insane and hold you back because they don’t comprehend what you’re doing. If it makes you happy and fulfilled, go ahead and do it.
To live a life of content and happiness is all in your hands. Only you can decide to make it happen or not. Your happiness depends and you and not on things or other people. So, give it a thought today!
Shop Review: ‘Ohh Nak’, The Ultimate Place To Get Fresh Durian Crepe
Durian Crepe is definitely one of the desserts most favored and also searched for by Malaysians nowadays. The taste of the soft and also delicious Durian Crepe could never be denied. One is never going to be enough while enjoying the Durian Crepe. Luckily, this particular shop called ‘Ohh Nak’ sell the most delicious and also fresh Durian Crepe ever.
‘Ohh Nak’ serves only the fresh Durian Crepe ever made in Malaysia and it is made fresh daily with rich creamy D24 durian paste infuse with Ohh Nak secret recipe. The smooth thin layer of crepe melts in your mouth. This statement by ‘Ohh Nak’ shop is absolutely true because I have even tasted their Durian Crepe myself and I am so obsessed with it.
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The taste of their Durian Crepe is really authentic because I could really taste the D24 durian paste right after my first bite of their homemade and fresh-made Durian Crepe. It’s not like the other Durian Crepe that I have ever tasted before which some of them only filled up with a lot of creams rather than the durian paste. This one hits different.
Other than their iconic Durian Crepe, they also made a lot of dessert choices that you can buy. I could tell you that all of them are really tasty and you will never feel regret buying them. Some of the dessert options that they have on their menu would be the Pandan Layer Cake, Yam Layer Cake, Chocolate Ganache, and also Durian Crepe Ice Cream. Previously, I have bought their most famous Durian Crepe, Pandan Layer Cake, and also Yam Layer Cake. Their own Layer Cake that they have made themselves is so colorful to look at. Other than that, they taste divine in every bite.
All of the desserts made freshly by ‘Ohh Nak’ shop is totally recommended by me and you also should try them all.
Instagram: Durian Crepe by Ohh Nak
Website: Ohh Nak
Facebook: Ohh Nak Durian Crepe
Phone Number: 019-6728232
Shop Review: ‘Minn.Eva’ Handmade Rings And Things!
Ladies, this one is especially for you. But before that, let’s take a hike down history. Besides being the Goddess of wisdom and war, Athena was also a patroness of handicraft. According to ancient history, Athena is well known for her spinning and weaving. Don’t believe me? Here’s the proof…
Meet the modern world goddess, Athena Don Vasudevan. A 23-year old law student who is also the founder of Minn.Eva. This KL based business sells aesthetic jewelry that makes you fall in love at first sight. Athena started this business in January as a reason to keep herself occupied during the MCO while studying for her law degree.
While browsing for the things she could do, she came across this wire-wrapped jewelry using gemstone beads, which she thought was pretty. Of course, starting a business isn’t easy and having the right people around you helps a lot. She had many positive reviews from her friends and families about her product which made her determine to start this business. And voila, that’s how Minn.Eva came to be.
The name Minn.Eva is actually a combination of the founder’s very own name in Roman. Athena which means Minerva and Eva, the name of her late grandmother. While she created all sorts of designs in this new passion she picked up, she herself fell in love with it and knew that she would definitely wear them on a daily basis. And lucky enough, others thought the same too.
Despite the products used and the time consumed to make this lovely jewelry, the pricing of this beautiful handmade jewelry is super affordable as her aim is to make her jewelry accessible to people on a student budget like herself.
Some of her best selling products are the
* Pride Collection Hoops
If you’re weary of the high street fashion and want to wear jewellery that no one else has while also supporting a fellow creator, then Minn.Eva is the place to go. Follow and purchase these one of a kind jewelry from their Instagram page and dazzle yourself in ways you can never imagine.
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